Question 6 : Does the bottle have some type of mold seam or seams on the base, i. There is often a visible change in the thickness of the glass on each side of the bottle neck inside the bore beginning at the point where the seam disappears and the tooling marks begin. Dating Ink Bottles. Consider the answers and dating overlap information provided by the above questions together in arriving at a likely age range for your bottle. Pontil marks come in several different stylistic types with variation within the different styles. Is embossed lettering present? The concentric rings are not always as obvious as the picture shows click to enlarge and sometimes not visible, though if present it is a conclusive diagnostic feature. This is another indication of a machine-made bottle.
Collecting antique bottles can be a lucrative hobby. Glass bottles began to be manufactured around and were used for beverages, cosmetic products and household cleaning supplies. Determining the date of a bottle helps the collector to determine the value of the bottle before purchasing it or trying to resell it. The use, type of glass and even the molding of the bottle can help the collector identify it. Observe the shape and color of the bottle. The shape of the bottle can illustrate what it was originally used for, helping you to identify its purpose and approximate age. Apothecary and medicinal bottles are small and are blue in color. Bottles that once contained poison or dangerous cleaning chemicals will also be blue. The shape and color can also help determine the age of the bottle. Blue glass bottles for household cleaners, medicines and poison were manufactured from the s through the s. Observe the bottle for any embossing or markings. Most bottles with embossing were manufactured after the lateth century into the midth century.
As Berge noted in referring to bottles, the " This bottle dating "key" is a relatively simple "first cut" on the dating of a bottle. Please be aware that in order to gain the maximum information about any particular bottle e. Unfortunately, the complexities of precisely dating bottles is beyond the scope of any simple key; more complex keys are far in the future if they ever become available.
A substantial amount of bottle type specific information must be reviewed by a user to increase the probability of dating accuracy. Additional reference materials outside of this website must usually be consulted to narrow down the date of any item as far as is possible and to really get a "feel" for the history of the bottle dating beer in question.
Fortunately, as each year passes more of this type information becomes available on the internet. Since this website was initiated a simple search for a bottle can now yield much more information than back then, depending on the precision and wording of a search. This admittedly can be very challenging with bottles that have no company, user, or bottle maker related embossing or original labeling.
The information on this website will, however, usually produce a reliable manufacturing date range for a majority of American utilitarian bottles manufactured from the late 17th century to the midth century.
Click here to move directly to the "Dating a Bottle" Section below. Using just physical, manufacturing related diagnostic features, most utilitarian bottles can usually only be accurately placed within a date range of years i. There are numerous reasons for this:. Like many industries making the leap from manual craftsman production to industrialization and automation, technological advances in bottle manufacturing were not immediately accepted by glass manufacturers or their workers.
Acceptance often occurred visit web page a period of many years or decades in some cases. This technology lag makes some diagnostic characteristics better than others for dating.
This will be noted where known. As a corollary to 1, consider the following quote: "Treat terminal dates with care. We can always have some indication of a starting date for a technique if we can find who first put the idea into practice. But any technique, once developed, can be used right up to the present - as many collectors know who have been so unfortunate as to rely too heavily on a popular termination date as sure evidence of true antiquity In short, there was and is nothing to stop a glassmaker from using an obsolete method in the production of a bottle.
Some technological changes were expensive and free dating sites sugar daddies adopted by glass makers until it became an "adapt or perish" issue and many glass factories simply perished. The shift to the fully automated bottle machine from mouth-blown and some semi-automatic methods in the early 20th century is the classic example Toulousea. The same bottle could have been recycled and reused many times bottle dating beer many years before finally being discarded - entire or broken Busch indiske kvinder dating bottle dating beer link below.
This was almost universal with many beverage bottle types e. The two products were from separate companies which were click to see more [Sacramento, CA. The author has also seen Star Bitters labels on Wait's bottles as well as both labels on the immensely period popular Hostetter's Stomach Bitters bottles! Reuse, of course, does not change the manufacturing bottle dating beer of the bottle itself, but care must be exercised when using the known date of one or a few bottles to date other items found from the same context.
When a likely or known "older" item is found in a known "newer" site it is referred to as deposition lag. An example of this is the finding of a few pontil scarred utilitarian bottles among otherwise late 19th or early 20th century refuse. It is unlikely that this bottle was made during the same era, but instead was reused for a lengthy period or otherwise retained until broken or discarded.
Pontiled base fragments could also be from later produced "specialty" bottles which are described below. Other diagnostic tools must be used to date these items.
Shape is more indicative of function, i. All this adds to the fascination with bottle making, but makes systematic dating similar to solving Rubik's cube - ostensibly simple on the surface but complex in practice.
That is the point of this website. A yet a few more factors to keep in mind in the dating of bottles Utilitarian items makes up the bulk of the bottles produced during the 19th century and first half of the 20th century. Bottles intended to be used bottle dating beer to dispense the contained product without much hope of return; 2.
Those produced during the era where all bottles were an relatively rare and cherished commodity to be discarded only when broken i. Click canning jar to view the typology page section devoted to that category. The heavy glass beer bottle pictured to the above left is a classic example of a utilitarian bottle from the late 19th century which was typically reused but follows the dating guidelines on this and the related dating pages.
The dating guidelines found on these Dating Pages and the entire website do not click work well with what the author calls "specialty" bottles click for more information. For example, some bottle types which were intended to be kept indefinitely like the early 20th century barber bottle pictured to the right were produced with the use of pontil or punty rods leaving telltale pontil scars on bottles into at least the early 20th century.
The base image below left is of an late 19th to early 20th century barber bottle base with a very distinct blowpipe pontil scar with a little residual iron from the pontil rod. Another exception example is that the bottles for expensive, limited production liquors e. Many specialty bottles were imported from Europe, though that fact may be at times hard to impossible to ascertain. Specialty bottles can be, of course, occasionally found on historic sites usually fragments, but occasionally intact but can rarely be used to help date the site because of the diagnostic problems and deposition lag issues noted above.
Having stated the above, there are still many diagnostic features or characteristics that provide a high probability of both dating and typing a bottle with some precision.
A key concept in historic bottle dating is the high probability i. The general probability estimates noted on this website are based on a merging of reliable references with empirical observations made by this site's affiliated consulting experts see the About This Site page and the author all of whom have been students of historic for best dating college graduates site dating and identification for many years.
N otes on embossing, labeling, and existing research. Raised embossing and when present, paper labeling on a bottle can frequently provide important details to refine the probable manufacturing date range if information exists for the company that either manufactured the bottle i. For example, the early San Francisco mineral water bottle pictured here is known to date between based on the information provided by article source embossing company name embossed on the pictured side and the glass maker - Union Glass Works - continue reading on the reverse and research done by collectors Markota Researched historical information of variable depth and quality exists for thousands of different - typically embossed - bottles.
Published works generally cover either a particular city, region, or category of bottles. See the References page for more information. For a large majority of embossed and unembossed bottles, however, there is little or nothing formally published on the details of their origins. Only a relative few geographic areas or areas of collecting interest have received more than cursory historical treatment and the majority of this is due to the efforts of collectors.
Time has taken its toll on records, of course, but much of what happened in the past was simply not documented well or at all as with most endeavors learn more here common people in the past.
As noted in Munsey's book, " When it comes to methods of dating bottles As Munsey also notes - " Most of what is used today to date bottles Think, berkeley matchmaking not all true today. This body of information will be utilized and extrapolated to make dating and typing estimates for the majority of bottles for which there is either bottle dating beer specific company or glass maker information available or such is not possible to determine because the bottles are unmarked i.
Stell Newman Newman Newman's key made a noble attempt at simplifying bottle dating, but is weakened by the fact that the subject is much too complex to be conducive to such source simple approach by itself.
Also, the format and space constraints of a journal article do not allow bottle dating beer the elaboration and illustrations necessary to make a key function fully Jones b.
Newman wryly recognized all this with his reworking of an old saying: "This bottle dating key is for the guidance of the wise and the obedience of fools. This website is designed to have the informational depth, pictures, and illustrations necessary to solve the problems of the Newman key though his warning still holds, although hopefully less so. This entire website is essentially a key to the dating and typing of bottles. However, the author of this site still recommends Dr.
Before jumping into the key, it must again be emphasized that no single key can get a user to an absolutely precise date for any bottle. The best the following key can do is get a user to a reliably close dating range estimate. Other information on this website usually must be reviewed to fine tune the information about a specific bottle.
In addition, other references beyond the scope of this website usually must be consulted to get as complete of a dating and typing story as is possible for any given bottle.
This include period newspapers, business directories, glass makers catalogs, trade journals and related publications, and other sources too numerous to detail.
Keep this all in mind as you progress through the key which follows and on into the other website pages Starting with Question 1follow through the questions as suggested. There is frequent hyper-linking between the diagnostic characteristics and terminology listed on this page and other website pages. This is done to allow the user to get more information click at this page clarification as they proceed through the key.
Pursue these links freely since they will take a user to more details on bottle dating and identification and hopefully add to the users knowledge and understanding about the bottle being "keying out. The three questions found on this page below answer several basic questions about a given bottle. Answers to these questions will then direct a user to one of the two additional dating pages which are extensions of this key for the two major classes of bottles: mouth-blown bottles and machine-made bottles.
Read the questions - and accompanying explanations and exceptions - very carefully as the correct answer is critical to moving properly through the bottle dating beer.
For examples of how to use this dating key see the Examples of Dating Historic Bottles page. This page guides a user through the key for seven different type and age bottles with several being side-by-side comparisons of very bottle dating beer bottles of different eras.
This page also shows how other portions of this website can provide information pertinent to the bottle in question. See the About This Site page for more information about the author and contributors.
For brevity, most of the specific references are not noted in the key's narratives. They are noted on the other website pages which expand on the information summarized in the key. If you know your bottle is machine-made click Machine-Made Bottles to bottle dating beer directly to that page.
If bottle dating beer know your bottle is mouth-blown aka hand-made click Mouth-blown Bottles to move directly to that page. If unsure about what embossing or vertical side mold seams picture below are, click on Bottle Morphology to see this sub-page for a illustration and explanation of these and many other key bottle related physical features.
Return back to this page by closing the Bottle Morphology page. Vertical side mold seam on the neck of a beer bottle ending well below the finish, indicating that it was at least site best dating european free handmade - ca.
YES - Learn more here bottle has embossing or visible vertical side mold seams somewhere on the body between the heel and the base of the finish or lip. A bottle may have mold seams but no embossing, but all embossed bottles were molded in some way and have mold seams even if they are not readily apparent. See note 2 below if there is embossing but it is only within a disk of glass which appears applied to the neck, shoulder or body of the bottle.
This bottle is either free-blown"dip" moldedor was produced in a "turn-mold" aka "paste-mold" where the bottle dating beer mold seams were erased during manufacture.